How To Create Default Parameters for Functions

Usually a function will take a set number of parameters, and require that all of them be present before it can be executed successfully. However, you will sometimes run into situations where you want to provide a default value for a parameter or take a variable number of parameters. Fortunately, from ES6/ES2015 default parameters is in the language specification:

const pow = (base, power = 2) => {
  return Math.pow(base, power);

console.log(pow(2)); // 4
console.log(pow(2, 10)); // 1024

In the above code The function pow return square of a number or any other power specified in the function call because the argument power is given a default value of 2 so whenever no second argument is provided or the provided value is undefined the function pow will use 2 as the value of argument power. But there is a small gotcha in it:

const pow = (base, power = 2) => {
  return Math.pow(base, power);

console.log(pow(2, undefined)); // 4
console.log(pow(2, null)); // 1

In JavaScript there are many ways of indicating "falsy"(false values) but out of them, only undefined will trigger the default parameter. This is the reason why pow(2, undefined) returns 4 and pow(2, null) returns 1.

JS PRO TIP: In Math.pow(base, power) if power is 0 or any other "falsy" value (except NaN) the result will always be 1.

Unfortunately, previous versions of JavaScript (ES5 and below) does not support default parameters out of the box but over time, however, people have developed idioms to compensate.

The first idiom is giving a default value for the last parameter. This is done by checking if the last parameter is undefined and setting it to a default value if it is. Sometimes people use the idiom: optionalParameter = optionalParameter || defaultValue. This can have some undesirable behavior when they pass values that are equal to false such as false, 0, and "". So a better way to do this is by explicitly checking that the optional parameter is undefined. Here is some code showing the two styles and the differing behavior:

const example = function (optionalArg) {
  optionalArg = optionalArg || 'No parameter was passed';

const betterExample = function (optionalArg) {
  if (optionalArg === undefined) {
    optionalArg = 'No parameter was passed';

console.log('Without parameter:');

console.log('\nWith parameter:');
example('parameter was passed');
betterExample('parameter was passed');

console.log('\nEmpty String:');

The second idiom is when the optional value is in the middle it can cause some undesired effects since all the parameters are shifted over. The optional parameter is not the undefined value in this case - the last parameter is the undefined one. So you have to check if the last parameter is undefined and then manually fix all the other parameters before continuing in the code. This case is also valid for modern JavaScript(ES6/ES2015). The example shows you how to do that:

const example = function (param1, optParam, callback) {
  if (callback === undefined) {
    // only two parameters were passed, so the callback is actually in `optParam`
    callback = optParam;

    // give `optParam` a default value
    optParam = 'and a default parameter';
  callback(param1, optParam);

example('This is a necessary parameter', console.log);
  'This is a necessary parameter',
  'and an optional parameter',
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