What is JSON?

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Original contents

JavaScript Object Notation, or JSON, is a lightweight data format that has become the defacto standard for the web. JSON can be represented as either a list of values, e.g. an Array, or a hash of properties and values, e.g. an Object.

// a JSON array
["one", "two", "three"]

// a JSON object
{ "one": 1, "two": 2, "three": 3 }

Encoding and Decoding

JavaScript provides 2 methods for encoding data structures to json and encoding json back to JavaScript objects and arrays. They are both available on the JSON object that is available in the global scope.

JSON.stringify takes a JavaScript object or array and returns a serialized string in the JSON format.

const data = {
  name: 'John Doe',
  age: 32,
  title: 'Vice President of JavaScript'

const jsonStr = JSON.stringify(data);


// prints '{"name":"John Doe","age":32,"title":"Vice President of JavaScript"}'

JSON.parse takes a JSON string and decodes it to a JavaScript data structure.

const jsonStr =
  '{"name":"John Doe","age":32,"title":"Vice President of JavaScript"}';

const data = JSON.parse(jsonStr);


// prints 'Vice President of JavaScript'

What is valid JSON?

There are a few rules to remember when dealing with data in JSON format. There are several gotchas that can produce invalid JSON as well.

  • Empty objects and arrays are okay
  • Strings can contain any unicode character (this also applies to object properties)
  • null is a valid JSON value on it's own
  • All object properties should always be double quoted
  • Object property values must be one of the following: String, Number, Boolean, Object, Array, null
  • Number values must be in decimal format, no octal or hex representations
  • Trailing commas on arrays are not allowed

These are all examples of valid JSON.

{"name":"John Doe","age":32,"title":"Vice President of JavaScript"}

["one", "two", "three"]

// nesting valid values is okay
{"names": ["John Doe", "Jane Doe"] }

[ { "name": "John Doe"}, {"name": "Jane Doe"} ]

{} // empty hash

[] // empty list


{ "key": "\uFDD0" } // unicode escape codes

These are all examples of bad JSON formatting.

{ name: "John Doe", 'age': 32 } // name and age should be in double quotes

[32, 64, 128, 0xFFF] // hex numbers are not allowed

{ "name": "John Doe", "age": undefined } // undefined is an invalid value

// functions and dates are not allowed
{ "name": "John Doe",
  "birthday": new Date('Fri, 26 Jan 2019 07:13:10 GMT'),
  "getName": function() {
      return this.name;

Calling JSON.parse with an invalid JSON string will result in a SyntaxError being thrown. If you are not sure of the validity of your JSON data, you can anticipate errors by wrapping the call in a try/catch block.

Notice that the only complex values allowed in JSON are objects and arrays. Functions, dates and other types are excluded. This may not seem to make sense at first. But remember that JSON is a data format, not a format for transferring complex JavaScript objects along with their functionality.

JSON Validators

As JSON has become the most widely used data format with well-defined rules to abide by, there are many validators available to assist your workflow:

  • Online Validators: If you are just playing around with JSON or checking someone's JSON (without IDEs/editors) then online validators could be of great help. For instance: jsonlint.com is a good online JSON validator and reformatter.
  • npm Packages: If you are working with a team and want JSON Validation baked into your project or simply like to automate validation in your workflow then the large collection of npm packages are at your disposal. For instance: jsonlint is a pure JavaScript version of the service provided at jsonlint.com.
  • Plugins for IDEs/editors: There are many plugins/extensions available for most of the IDEs/editors which validate JSON for you. Some editors like VS Code come with JSON IntelliSense & Validation out of the box.

JSON in other languages

Although JSON was inspired by the simplicity of JavaScript data structures, it's use is not limited to the JavaScript language. Many other languages have methods of transferring native hashes and lists into stringified JSON objects. Here's a quick example in ruby.

require 'json'

data = { :one => 1 }
puts data.to_json

# prints "{ \"one\": 1 }"
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